Michael Calvani

When foreign immigrants began arriving in the United States in the nineteenth century, their thoughts were on making a new and better life for their families and themselves.  The past had not been favorable, for the old country had little to offer a poor immigrant desiring more from life than poverty, degradation, and peasantry.  Wealthy landlords had been the predominant landowners for hundreds of years, with only small parcels of land being owned by the more fortunate peasant.1.  Upward social mobility was a near impossibility for the European peasant, and the future did not seem to hold anything brighter.  Thus, when the peasant was given the opportunity to immigrate to the United States, the feeling was often that there was absolutely nothing to lose, and possibly much to gain.  This was precisely the sentiment of one Italian immigrant in particular who felt a future in the United States could be no worse than his present in Italy.  At the time he was only a young man, but age was to have no bearing on his exceedingly mature decision to immigrate to the States.  The result could have disastrous, but in this case it was not.  With a great deal of determination, hard work, and perhaps a little luck this Italian peasant achieved a success that was once merely a dream.

The Decision to Immigrate

Torello Calvani was born in the small Italian village of Pistoia on July 25, 1872.  His parents, Narcisio and Maria Calvani, were extremely poor and survived only through Narcisio’s profession as a stonemason.  Money was extremely scarce, for the family had two children younger than Torello to support as well.  Being the eldest, Torello was the first child to begin assisting his father in daily work.  It was his task to haul stone by wheelbarrow to whatever location Narcisio was working.  By the age of twenty, Torello had grown tired of the extreme physical labor that stone masoning demanded, and decided that he must begin looking for other ways of making a living.  Word had been circulating around Pistoia that a wealthy Swiss Italian by the name of De Lentus, was in dire need of Italian citizens who were willing to immigrate to the United States.  His intentions were to raise fine grapes and registered hogs, in hopes that he might expand his wealth even further.  Torello saw this as an opportunity for escaping his arduous situation at home, and thus made the decision to leave home without notifying his family.

The Voyage

Upon achieving a passport, Torello traveled from Pistoia to the seaport of Genoa where the voyage to the United States was to originate.2  Mr. De Lentus had acquired a great number of eager Italians who wished to make the voyage.  Many of them had wives and children, while others like Torello departed alone.  On August 27, 1892, a ship packed with excited immigrants left Genoa harbor on a voyage that was to take thirteen long and strenuous days.3  The journey was a most uncomfortable experience, for the Italian immigrants were not reserved first or even second class accommodations, but rather third class which is typically occupied by either cargo or steerage.4  Needless to say, sanitation was extremely poor, for the immigrant often complained of spoiled food, rats, and lice on board ship.  The accompanying results were sickness and disease, which a great number of immigrants contracted at one stage of the trip or another.  In fact, the condition of the third class passenger was so poor, that the crewmen of the ship often called them pigs or swine.

However, the entire journey was not complete misery and discomfort, for simple forms of entertainment were present on board.5  Perhaps this excitement transpired only through a simple immigrant squeezebox or mandolin, but it was entertainment nonetheless.  If only for a short moment, the Italian’s mind would become filled with happiness and content, disregarding their present condition of ill health.  The dancing and frolicking continued, until the tired immigrant became too weary to participate.  But this was only one night in particular, with many more nights to complete before the journey’s end.

Arrival to a New World

At long last, the final day of travel arrived on September 8, 1892, at the port of New York.6  For the first time in thirteen days, the immigrant was able to set foot on dry land.  Mr. De Lentus had arranged a train by which the Italian immigrants would travel from New York, to their final destination in New Mexico.  The journey took several days to complete, for several train changes were necessary in order to reach their final destination.  Adding to the difficulty of the trip were communication barriers between the immigrant and American.  Even obtaining food became a problem, since Italian was the only language spoken by the immigrant  Torello was no exception to this problem, for traveling alone only served to alienate him further from the new American culture.  At one point in his journey by train, Torello was sitting next to an immigrant family eating their afternoon meal, which happened to include bread.  A piece of bread was dropped on the floor, which Torello seized immediately.  When the train took one of its frequent stops, Torello ran from the train to a nearby store, which sold food.  He slid his piece of bread across the counter towards the clerk, along with some American coins.  In turn, the grocery clerk sold Torello a loaf of bread.  This means of communication, as primitive as it may seem, was the only viable method accessible to Torello due to his total ignorance of the English language.

After many days of anxious travel, the train of immigrants finally reached Pecos, Texas, where they transferred on to the Pecos Valley Railroad.  It would be this line which would take the Italians to their new home in Malaga, New Mexico, located only a few miles outside the town of Eddy, which today is the city of Carlsbad.7  It took only a few hours for the train to reach the Malaga depot, where upon the Italians unloaded what few belongings they had brought with them from the old country.  Whether the immigrant liked it or not, their lives were to be controlled for the next two years by their new employer, Mr. De Lentus.  Historically this type of control has been called indentured servitude, whereas a person serves a specified segment of time in return for his travel expenses and maintenance.  The situation was no different in respect to the Italian immigrants, for they had pledged themselves to serve De Lentus for two consecutive years in payment for their travel to the United States.  It was an extreme risk to take, especially for the immigrant who was not sure if his decision to leave his home was the correct one.

Not long after arriving in Malaga, Torello met a young girl named Ersilia Louise Grandi.  She and her family had come to the United States to work for Mr. De Lentus.  Ersilia was only fifteen when she arrived in America, but that was old enough for her to begin work.  While Torello’s responsibility was to the hogs and grapes, Ersilia’s was to the De Lentus home, located just west of Malaga.  She, as the housemaid, was directly responsible to Mrs. De Lentus who proved to be extremely demanding and tyrannical.  Ersilia was consistently treated with very little respect, and was expected to respond quickly to each and every whim Mrs. De Lentus possessed.  Being that Ersilia’s job required her to be on duty both day and night, one might expect her to receive special rewards for her extra service.  However, this did not prove to be the case.  For two weeks of extreme labor, Ersilia was once awarded a pair of Mrs. De Lentus’ old worn out shoes.  For one month’s tedious labor, she received an old straw hat with a chicken feather protruding from the side.  It was not unusual for Mrs.. De Lentus to demand coffee in bed, even when the morning was quite young.  Ersilia would have to rise from bed simply to satisfy Mrs. De Lentus’ early command.

Torello visited Ersilia whenever time would allow, but work utilized most of their time.  Usually their individual labor responsibilities kept them distant from one another, until Mr. De Lentus ordered Torello and another work hand to plant cottonwood trees around his house.  The two men left early one morning en route to Rocky Arroyo Spring, which was located twenty miles northwest of Eddy.  Wagon was the only means of transportation available to the immigrants; therefore the journey was extremely long and tiresome.  Upon their return, they planted a number of trees around the De Lentus house.8  The task of planting trees gave Torello the opportunity to become much closer to Ersilia, which helped to foster their relationship even further.  Although the two immigrants had no realization of it at the time, it was not to be long before their lives, as well as the lives of the other Italians, were to undergo a drastic change.

On Their Own

The immigrants had been in the United States only three years, when it became quite evident that Mr. De Lentus’ American dream was a total failure.  A great majority of the registered hogs had contracted cholera and subsequently died, leaving very few in De Lentus’ possession.  The grapes grew well in Malaga due to proper climate and moisture. However, the problem arose in getting the grapes to market, for the expense of their shipping came to surpass the profits.9  Therefore, Mr. De Lentus’ two focal products produced debts rather than gains.  His wealth had dwindled to nothing in only three years, leaving him a very poor man.  Since the immigrants were required to serve Mr. De Lentus for only two years, the third year’s labor came out of his pocketbook.  The Italians had no money to speak of when they immigrated, much less after three years of free labor for their employer.  In Torello’s case, De Lentus compensated his third year of work with what hogs survived the cholera epidemic.  The other immigrants were paid for their year’s labor in much the same style; in essence, with whatever De Lentus had left after bankruptcy.  In 1895, Mr. De Lentus and his wife returned to Italy with what small amount of money they possessed.  The immigrants were stranded to fend for themselves the best they could, although their best was not much in which to begin a new life.

Torello, with what money he had saved since his arrival to the United States, rented his first farm in the latter portion of 189.  It was located just south of Malaga, and north of a channel of water known as Black River.10  Torello planted the entire farm in corn and milo maize, which fortunately grew extremely well.  Torello continued farming alone, until he married Ersilia Louise on May 16, 1896.  He was twenty-four, while she was only nineteen, but together they hoped to tackle the future and whatever it might possibly hold.  On September 22, 1896, their first child named Helen Pauline was born while still occupying the rental farm.  Ersilia now had two jobs: caring for her new child as well as assisting Torello in the fields.  Life was still very difficult for the couple, but at least they truly led their own lives for the first time, which had never been possible in the past.

In 1897, Torello and Ersilia with their daughter Helen, moved to a second rental farm, which was located just east of a nearby farming community called Loving, named after Oliver Loving, a Texas cattleman who brought many cattle into the area.11  Torello duplicated his previous farm by planting corn and milo maize once again.  His crops prospered well, much the same as they had previously . However, while on this farm not only was a good crop of corn produced, but four more children as well . Delia Clara, their second child, was born April 1, 1898.  Two years later Ersilia gave birth to Emily Eleanor on March 1, 1900.  Mary Ersilia, their fourth girl, was born December 31, 1901, while their fifth born, Vera, arrived November 27, 1903.  With a family of this size, it was obvious that Ersilia could no longer aid Torello in the fields.  But Torello and Ersilia had planned ahead, for they realized that when Ersilia became pregnant for the second time with Delia, they were going to need assistance on the farm.  Thus, in the year 1898, Torello sent for his younger brother Raffaello who still lived in Pistoia.  Raffaello decided to accept his brother’s offer, and departed from Genoa harbor April 1, 1898, on the ship California.12  After fifteen days of travel, Raffaello arrived in New York where he boarded a train for New Mexico.  Although he was twenty-two years old at the time, Raffaello encountered serious problems while on board since he could not speak the English language.  Because of this handicap, Raffaello was often unable to comprehend when he should change trains, as well as which train to transfer onto.  After some time, the young man arrived in Malaga, New Mexico, aboard the Pecos Valley Railroad. Raffaello proved to be a great asset to Torello and Ersilia, for the crops seemed to expand almost as quickly as did the Calvani family.

Torello’s farm, as well as other surrounding farms in the area, depended heavily on irrigation as the primary source of water for their crops.  The irrigation system originated at a dam called Avalon, located just north of Carlsbad.13  The dam, originally constructed in 1891, washed out completely after a flood, which occurred only two years later.  Through the personal efforts of a wealthy individual named James J. Hagerman, Avalon dam was rebuilt in 1894.  However, in 1904 another great flood washed out the dam once again.14  This time it was up to the surrounding farmers to rebuild Avalon, since it was they who depended upon the dam so heavily.  Torello and his fellow farmers traveled from their homes by wagon to repair the dam.  Raffaello remained on the farm to work the crops, as well as assist Ersilia whenever possible.  Their farm was slowly expanding, for not long prior to the flood Torello had invested in a few dairy cows, which he hoped would add to the family’s income.  Slowly but surely, the farm was beginning to develop into a successful operation.

In 1905, Torello and his family including Raffaello moved from their second farm, onto a third rental farm previously owned by a family named McShane.  While occupying this farm, Ersilia gave birth to her sixth child Robert Mario on October 5, 1906, and her seventh child Pia Maria on October 18, 1907.  Torello continued to grow corn and milo maize, always keeping a few dairy cows on the farm as well.  Since Ersilia had given birth to seven children, Raffaello’s assistance in the fields was indispensable to Torello.  With only the two men working the farm, labor was always strenuous and tiring.

The family occupied this farm for only three years, and moved from it to a fourth farm in 1908.15  It was located just north of a cottonseed oil mill, which operated on the outskirts of Loving.  No children were born on this farm, for the family resided there only a year.  Corn, Milo maize, and dairy cows continued to be the family’s livelihood, leaving very little time for rest or relaxation.

By the year 1909, Torello had accumulated enough money to purchase his first farm.16  For the first time the family moved onto land that was to be theirs, rather than someone else’s.  It was located in a small farming community called Otis, just six miles south of Carlsbad.  The crops did not differ from the past, for Torello continued to grow corn and milo maize.  However, the amount of work for Raffaello and himself seemed to only increase.  But the two men managed just the same, as exemplified through certain farming techniques the men utilized.

Irrigation water was generally sent down towards the evening, after the farmer’s day in the field was completed.  Torello would often be exhausted after a day’s work, but realized that the irrigation water would be coming that evening, and would have to be diverted into his fields.  He solved his problem by lying next to the ditch, with one arm dangling along its side. When the water began to flow down its bottom, his arm became wet which in turn woke him from sleep to open the field gates.  A variation of the same technique involved tying one end of a string to the farmer’s arm, and the other end to a board, which was placed in the ditch.  When the irrigation water began to flow, the board would float, thus pulling on the farmer’s arm signaling him to open his field gates.  Although both methods were rather simplistic in nature, they were quite effective nonetheless.

On July 26, 1910, Ersilia gave birth to her eighth child, Albert James, while still occupying the Otis farm.  Torello and Ersilia had been married fourteen years, produced eight children, lived on five farms and endured many hardships.  But together, along with Raffaello, their labor had paid off not only in monetary rewards, but personal ones as well.  Less than two decades had passed, yet Torello and Ersilia had gone from peasantry and servitude, to successful farming and management.  The dream of a better life, once envisioned, was slowly becoming reality.

In February of 1911, Torello sold the Otis farm and bought another located three miles south of Carlsbad.  Apparently this farm seemed to have an aura of permanence about it, for Torello built their first house on its outskirts.  For the first time the family was to have their own living quarters, rather than those occupied by the previous renter or owner.  Corn, milo maize, and a few dairy cows continued to be the three primary products, as they had on previous farms.  The Calvani family occupied this farm for approximately two years, until they were offered an opportunity too tremendous to let pass.

In 1913, a farmer by the name of Kerr asked Torello and his family to move onto and work his vineyard stock farm.  The farm had once been cultivated in grapes when the product was still profitable.  However, when they became obsolete, Kerr replaced them with corn and alfalfa.  Torello and his family accepted, deciding they would continue to farm their own land, as well as Kerr’s.  A family named Matney offered to rent the Calvani house while they were on the vineyard farm, until Torello’s decision to return.  The agreement worked out extremely well with Torello, Raffaello, and only a few extra farmhands tilling both the home farm and Kerr’s as well.  Meanwhile, Ersilia gave birth to her last two children, Cesarine Amelia on May 25, 1914, and Torello Howard on August 19, 1917.  Although Torello and Ersilia had ten siblings by the year 1917, the eldest male was only eleven years old.  Obviously he was capable of rendering only limited assistance to Torello and Raffaello in the fields, especially when it came to baling hay.  Thus, in the spring of 1918, Torello purchased one of the first gasoline powered hay baler’s in the Carlsbad area.  It was a one cylinder, six horse power Fairbanks Morse, a real beauty for its time.  The baler proved to be invaluable, for it greatly lessened the men’s labor in the fields, and enabled Torello to hire fewer farmhands.

In spring of 1919, the Calvani family and Raffaello moved back to their home which the Matney’s had been renting for the past six years.  Mr. Kerr had sold his vineyard stock farm to a Mr. A. L. Nichols, previously of Arkansas.  Being that Torello owned a hay baler, corn and milo maize were no longer as functional a crop as alfalfa.  Thus, Torello retilled his soil and supplemented alfalfa for a great majority of the corn and Milo maize.  In addition, Torello began growing another product known as Durango cotton, which proved to grow exceptionally well in the Carlsbad area.  The farm’s entire 130 acres were thus planted and growing well, supporting not only Torello, Ersilia, and Raffaello, but ten children as well.

Matters continued much the same from 1919 until 1924, when a major disaster struck which left not only Torello and his family in financial trouble, but also others in and around the Carlsbad area as well.  The Carlsbad National Bank, which handled most all-surrounding accounts, went bankrupt in 1924.17  Torello lost approximately $12,000, which he had been saving in the bank.  Obviously this was indeed a major financial setback for the family.  However, it would have been much worse had Torello been the only individual caught in this predicament.  But when a disaster such as this hits a great many people in much the same manner, its effects are lessened a great deal.  Therefore, although Torello had lost a large sum of money, due to the circumstances, the family was able to weather the crisis.

In 1928, Torello and Ersilia decided to return to Italy in order that they might visit with old friends and relatives.  Thirty-six years had lapsed since their voyage and settlement in the United States.  The couple boarded the Pecos Valley Railroad in Carlsbad, which began their journey to New York.  On May 10, 1928, their ship departed from New York harbor en route to Genoa, Italy, this time carrying the Italian couple as passengers rather than steerage.18  While Torello and Ersilia were in Italy, they visited Mrs. De Lentus who then resided in a rest home for the aged.  Her husband had died a few years prior, leaving Mrs. De Lentus alone to fend for herself.  In August of 1928, after a lengthy visit of three months, they returned to the United States.

Life continued much the same on the Calvani farm even through the depression, for the family was rural and not affected by the economic crash to the degree that many urban dwellers were.  In fact, Robert and Albert, Torello’s two eldest sons, purchased a dairy from a Mr. Walter Cole in 1938 for $5,000.  Included in the transaction were mi1king machinery and approximately forty cows.  The two men kept the dairy for five years, until its selling in 1943 to a Mr. Allan Richardson.  Torello was then seventy-one years old and prepared to sell his farm and retire.  Since the family’s youngest son, Torello Howard, had enlisted in the Air Force to fight in the Second World War, Robert and Albert decided to accept their father’s offer, and purchased the farm on September 27, 1943.19  The two men continued to farm alfalfa, as well as a new and better type of cotton known as Acala.

Torello and Ersilia spent the next three years in retirement, until Torello passed away on April 12, 1946.  Not long after his death, Ersilia moved into Carlsbad where she lived until her death on June 28, 1963.  Robert and Albert continued to work the farm until 1973, when Robert decided to quit farming and raise Santa Geradus cattle.  Albert continued farming the west side of the farm, while Robert raised cattle on the east side.  Today the situation is much the same, with Robert maintaining approximately 280 head of cattle on the east side, while Albert and his son Jerry farm the west side.

The story of Torello and Ersilia Calvani is not necessarily one of rags to riches, but rather one of success and happiness which was made possible through a great deal of hard work.  Their decision to immigrate could have been disastrous, for none of the Italians knew for sure what the future would hold. Torello could have chosen to remain at home and assist his father, but decided instead to accept the challenge of a new adventure.  Ersilia’s parents could also have chosen to stay in Italy, but they too decided the risk and opportunity was well worth accepting.  As it turned out, their decision to immigrate was a wise choice, for what was once merely a dream had finally become reality.

Torello & Esilia Calvani Family


Helen Pauline

September 22, 1896

November 19, 1985


Delia Clara

April 1, 1989

November 16, 1933


Emily Eleanor

March 1, 1900



Mary Ersilia

December 31,1901

December 26, 1971



November 27, 1903

January 23, 1960


Robert Mario

October 5, 1906



Pia Maria (Edna)

October 18, 1907


Albert James

July 26, 1910



Cesarine Amelia

May 25, 1914



Torello Howard

August 19, 1917

December 10,2002

The following are land transactions made by Torello Calvani, during his lifetime. The information was researched in the County Clerk’s office, Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  1. Grantor: United States.
    Grantee: Torello Calvan
    March 5, 1906. Book 2, Page 61.
    General Index to Deeds and Mortgages, Book #4, Eddy County.
  2. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: N. T. Daugherty and W. D. McBee,
    October 4, 1906. Book 20, Page 5.
    Ibid, Book #5,
  3. Grantor: Pecos Irrigation Company.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani,
    February 1, 1908. Book 3, Page 232.
  4. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Charles Pardue.
    December 31, 1908. Book 25, Page 2.
    Ibid, Book #6.
  5. Grantor: August Uihlein.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani.
    April 24, 1908. Book 22, Page 52.
  6. Grantor: John Mihlfred.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani.
    September 30, 1909. Book 8, Page 456.
    Ibid, Book # 7.
  7. Grantor: Charles Pardue.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani,
    January 2, 1909. Book 10, Page 23.
  8. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: F. F. Doepp.
    August 4, 1909. Book 8, Page 426.
  9. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Lewis R. Ross.
    January 15, 1910. Rook 5, Page 315.
  10. Grantor: J. E. Foster.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani.
    June 28, 1909. Book H. Page 248.
  11. Grantor: Ilario Urquides.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani.
    February 19, 1910. Book K, Page 98.
  12. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Charles Pardue.
    July 27, 1910. Book 6, Page 166.
    Ibid, Book #8
  13. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Pecos Water Users Association.
    September 10, 1910. Book 2, Page 365 & 367.
  14. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Water Right Application.
    March 2, 1912. Book 1, Page 62.
  15. Grantor: Ynnocenti Ramiriz.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani.
    June 8, 1910, Book K, Page 222.
  16. Grantor: Richard J. Bolles.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani.
    September 14, 1910.
    Book 22, Page 134.
  17. Grantor: Mary C. Kircher.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani.
    December 13, 1910. Book 32, Page 155.
  18. Grantor: Heirs of August Uihlein.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani,
    flay 23, 1913. Book 35, Page 434.
    Index to Deeds, Book #9, Eddy County.
  19. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Pecos Water Users Association.
    January 2, 1914. Book 2, Page 509.
  20. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Ersilia Calvani.
    September 18, 1915. Book 40, Page 72.
  21. Grantor: Ersilia Calvani.
    Grantee: Water Rights Application.
    September 22, 1915. Book 4, Page 332.
  22. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Francis G. Tracy.
    March 1, 1917, Book 5, Page 299.
    Ibid, Book #10.
  23. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Howard C. Kerr.
    May 15, 1919. Book 1, Page 173.
  24. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Pecos Water Users Association.
    July 26, 1919. Book 3, Page 41.
  25. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Water Rights Application.
    December 31, 1919. Book 8, Page 529.
  26. Grantor: Heirs of August Uihlein.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani.
    May 23, 1913. Book 35, Page 434.
    Ibid, Book #9.
  27. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Pecos Water Users Association.
    January 2, 1914. Book 2, Page 509.
  28. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Ersilia Calvani.
    September 18, 1915. Book 40, Page 72.
  29. Grantor: Ersilia Calvani.
    Grantee: Water Rights Application.
    September 22, 1915. Book 4, Page 332.
  30. Grantor: William H. Mullane.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani.
    August 25, 1922. Book 49, Page 476.
    Ibid, Book #11.
  31. Grantor: Henry Hamilton.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani.
    April 7, 1923. Book 53, Page 14. Ibid.
  32. Grantor: Elmer Hamilton.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani.
    April 7, 1923. Book 53, Page 15.
  33. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: First National Bank
    April 7, 1923. Book 20, Page 532.
  34. Grantor: Carl Smith.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani.
    March 3, 1924. Book 53, Page 271.
  35. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Federal Land Bank.
    November 22, 1924. Book 21, Page 630.
  36. Grantor: W. E. Polk.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani.
    December 2, 1924. Book 23, Page 60.
  37. Grantor: W. T. Joyce.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani.
    August 24, 1925. Book 11, Page 323.
  38. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: W. E. Polk. November 23, 1925. Book 11, Page 355.
  39. Grantor: Romolo Gomez.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani.
    December 2, 1925. Book 55, Page 302.
  40. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Andres Vasques,
    December 16, 1925. Book 10, Page 547
  41. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Federal Land Bank.
    January 11, 1925. Book 24, Page 556.
  42. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Carl Smith.
    December 26, 1926. Book 21, Page 357,
  43. Grantor: George Brantley.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani,
    December 12, 1927. Book 11. Page 639.
    Ibid, Book #12
  44. Grantor: Torello Calvani
    Grantee: Carrie J. Polk
    December 5, 1927. Book 57, Page 177.
  45. Grantor: W. E. Polk.
    Grantee: Torello Calvani.
    December 13, 1928, Book 46, Page 90.
  46. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Andres Vasques.
    May 2, 1928. Book 11, Page 517.
  47. Grantor: Ersilia Calvani.
    Grantee: Caesar Grandi.
    October 1, 1938. Book 65, Page 359
    Index to Real Estate Deeds and Mortgages.
    From January 1, 1936, to January 1, 1948.
  48. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Velma F. Moss.
    October 4, 1940, Book 77, Page 234.
  49. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Sestilia Ginanni.
    August 5, 1941. Book 77, Page 438.
  50. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Erminia Holder.
    April 13, 1942. Book 79, Page 340.
  51. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: City of Carlsbad.
    September 25, 1942. Book 78, Page 504.
  52. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: William Robertson.
    May 7, 1941. Book 81, Page 184.
  53. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Albert Fisher.
    November 6, 1943. Book 81, Page 504.
  54. Grantor: Torello Calvani.
    Grantee: Robert and Albert Calvani.
    September 27, 1943. Book 83, Page 316.


Calvani, Albert James. Interview held in Carlsbad, New Mexico March 18, 1978.
Calvani, Emily Eleanor. Interview held in Carlsbad, New Mexico March 13, 1978.
Calvani, Robert Mario. Interview held in Carlsbad, New Mexico March 12, 1978.
Calvani, Torello Howard. Interview held in Carlsbad, New Mexico March 10, 1978.
Hamilton, Helen Pauline Calvani. Interview held in Carlsbad, New Mexico March 17, 1978.
Nichols, Pia Maria Calvani. Interview held in Carlsbad, Nlew Mexico March 17, 1978.
County Clerk. Index to Real Estate Deeds and Mortgaages. Carlsbad: County Clerk’s office, 1943.
Handlin, Oscar. The Uprooted. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1973.
Italian Passport issued to Torello Calvani in Bolgna, Italy, 1892.
Melton, Helen. History of Carlsbad, New Mexico. Carlsbad: Carlsbad Public Library, 1947.
Minter, Victor S. Carlsbad History. Carlsbad: I. M. C. Corp., 1949.
Pritchard, Stu. Eddy County . . . A Fond Look Back. Carlsbad: Great Western Printing Co., Inc.
U. S. Department Of Labor. Declaration of Intention. State of New Mexico, County of Eddy, 1924.
U. S Department of Labor. Passport. Washington D.C Washington, 1928.
U. S. Department of Labor. Petition for Citizenship. District Court, Carlsbad, New Mexico, 1930.
U. S. Department of Labor. Preliminary Form for Petition for Naturalization. Denver, Colorado, 1927.

1 – Oscar Handlin, The Uprooted, 2nd. ed. (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1973), p 14.

2 – According to Torello Calvani’s passport, now held by his son Torello Howard Calvani, Torello Sr. apparently lied regarding his age to the authorities. His passport declares him to be twenty one years of age, while infact he was only twenty years of age.

3 – U .S Department of Labor, Declaration of Intention, (State of New Mexico, County of Eddy, 1924), No. 65.

4 – U.S. Department of Labor, Preliminary Form for Petition for Naturalization, (Denver, Colorado, 1927), Form 2214.

5 – Emily Calvani, Interview held in Carlsbad, New Mexico, March 13, 1978.

6 – U.S. Department of Labor, Declaration of Intention, (State of New Mexico, County of Eddy, 1924), No. 65.

7 – Helen Melton, History of Carlsbad, New Mexico, (Carlsbad: Carlsbad Public Library, 1947) p. 4.

8 – I was taken by Albert and Torello Howard to the location where the De Lentus home was located. Today only one cottonwood tree still remains of all that were once planted by Torello while working for De Lentus.

99 – Melton, History of Carlsbad, New Mexico, p.2.

10 – I was taken by Albert and Torello Howard to the location where Torello’s first rental farm was located. All that remains today are portions of foundation and a few nails. The farmland is now in alfalfa, and also contains an oil well.

1111 – Stu Pritchard, Eddy County . . . A Fond Look Back, (Carlsbad: Great Western Printing Co., Inc.), p. 7.

1212 – U. S. Department of Labor, Petition For Citizenship, (District Court, Carlsbad, New Mexico, 1930), No. 339706. 

13 – Victor S. Minter, Carlsbad History, (Carlsbad: I. M C. Corp, 1949), p. 7.

14 – Minter, Carlsbad History, pp. 5 6

15 – I was taken by Albert and Torello Howard to the location of Torello’s fourth farm. Absolutely no trace of the farmhouse remains, and the entire area today is being farmed in alfalfa.

16 – I was taken by Albert and Torello Howard to the location of Torello’s fifth farm. I was informed that the farmhouse burned to the ground in November 1977.

17 – Minter, Carlsbad History, p. 4.*

18 – U.S. Department of Labor, Passport, (Washington D.C Washington, 1928).

19 – County Clerk, Index to Real Estate Deeds and Mortgages, (Carlsbad: County Clerk’s Office, 1943), p. 316